Breast Unit

Breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer in women. Know more about the symptoms and risk factors of breast cancer – time to take action.

By Mahkota For Women

Our female-oriented team and dedicated nurse navigator will be with you every step of the way.

Advanced Medical Technology

Advancements in medical care is fundamental to what we do at
Mahkota Cancer Centre.

Comprehensive Care

From treatment, patient support and rehabilitation services, we’re here to offer you the best care for your condition.

At Mahkota Medical Centre, we provide a cancer patient navigator service that aims to help cancer patients on their journey towards recovery. Their role is to personalise each individual’s needs, condition, treatment journey and help better manage their expectations.
Watch the video below to find out more:

What Do I Need To Know?

Breast cancer occurs when the cells in the lobules or ducts become abnormal and divide uncontrollably; these cells then invade surrounding breast tissue and eventually spreads via blood vessels and lymphatic channels to the lymph nodes, lungs, bones, brain, and liver.

Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer to hit Malaysian women, with 1 in 27 are at risk of diagnosis. In 2003, of the new cases reported in Malaysia, 64% o f these cases were women between the ages of 40 to 60-years-old. 40% of all new cases reported, however, were already at the advanced stages of the disease.

Many different types of breast cancers occur in two broad categories – invasive and noninvasive. The two most common types of breast cancer are:

  • Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC)
    Breast cancer where cells grow outside the ducts into other parts of the breast tissue. Invasive cancer cells can also spread, or metastasise, to other parts of the body. This type of cancer accounts for about 80% of all breast cancers.
  • Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC)
    ILC is another most common breast cancer where cancer cells spread from the lobules of the breast tissue that are close-by. These invasive cancer cells can also apply to other parts of the body. This type of breast cancer makeup 10 – 15% of all breast cancers and is often found in multiple sites in the breast.
What Are The Causes?

There are several risk factors known to increase the chance of developing breast cancer. Risk factors that you cannot change are:

  • Getting Older – The risk o f breast cancer increases with age. Women aged 50-year-old and above are susceptible to breast cancer.
  • Genetic Mutations – Women who have inherited changes to specific genes, such as BRCA1 and BRCA2, are at higher risks.
  • Reproductive History – Early menstrual periods bef ore the age of 12 and menopause after the age of 55 expose women to hormones longer, leading to a greater risk of breast cancer.
  • Personal History of Breast Cancer or Certain Non-cancerous Breast Diseases – Women who have had breast cancer are likely to face a recurrence. Non-cancerous breast diseases such as atypical hyperplasia or lobular carcinoma in situ, are also at higher risks.
  • Family History of Breast Cancer – Women whose mother, sister, or daughter (first-degree relative) or multiple family members on either mother or father’s side of the family who has had br east cancer are at
    greater risk.
  • Previous treatment using Radiation Therapy – Women who had radiation therapy to the chest or br easts before the

Risk factors you can change are:

  • Not Physically Active – Women who are not physically active have a higher risk of breast cancer.
  • Overweight or Obese After Menopause – Older women who ar e overweight or obese have a higher risk compared to those at an average weight.
  • Taking Hormones – Certain forms of hormone replacement therapy taken during menopause can raise the risk of breast cancer when taken more than five years.
  • Reproductive History – Having the first pregnancy after 30, not breastfeeding, and never having a full-term pregnancy may result in increased breast cancer risk factors.
  • Alcohol consumption – Women’s risk of breast cancer increases with alcohol consumption.
Book Your Consultation
What Are The Symptoms?

Symptoms of breast cancer are never the same among women. Some may not show signs or symptoms at all. Common warning signs of breast cancer are:

  • New lump in the breast or underarm
  • Thickening or swelling
  • Irritation or dimpling of breast skin
  • Redness or flaky skin in the nipple or br east area
  • Pulling in of the nipple or pain in the nipple area
  • Nipple discharge other than breast milk, including blood
  • Any change in the size or shape of the breast
  • Pain in any area of the breast

Becoming familiar with your breasts through breast self-exam can increase your breast awareness. Though it may not prevent breast cancer, a better understanding of changes in your breasts may prompt early detection and intervention of breast cancer.

Book Your Screening
How Do I Prevent Breast Cancer?

The goal of screening is for early breast cancer detection. Early detection means applying a strategy that results in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Breast cancers detected due to arising symptoms tend to be relatively more extensive and may have spread beyond the breast, while breast cancers found during screening exams are more likely to be small and confined t o the breasts.

Becoming breast aware is key to beating breast cancer, and early detection of breast cancer includes breast self-examination and mammography screening.

Book Your Consultation
How Are Mammographs Performed?

Previously, mammography uses analogue mammograms where images are on film. Digital mammography is the next step for the screening of early-stage breast cancer, allowing healthcare professionals to capture and manipulate images to get a clearer picture.

For mammograms, the breast is compressed between 2 plates to flatten and spread the tissue lasting a few seconds to produce a fair and readable mammogram.

A radiologist will interpret the result on the lookout for:

  • Macrocalcification – Coarse calcium deposits r epresenting degenerative
    changes in the breasts
  • Microcalcification – Specks of calcium in the br easts.
  • Mass – That can be caused by benign br east conditions or by br east cancer
  • Cyst – Confirmation of a mass that is a cyst thr ough breast ultrasound or
    removal of fluid with a needle.
When do you go for Mammographs?

Women above the age of 40 should consult a doctor or a healthcare professional on when to start and how often they should get a mammogram.

Book Your Consultation

Azizah, A. M., Nor Saleha, I. T., Noor Hashimah, A., Asmah, Z. A., & Mastulu, W. (2016). Malaysian National Cancer Registry Report 2007-2011. Putrajaya:
National Cancer Institute.

Breast Cancer – Symptoms & Causes – Mayo Clinic. (22 November 2019). Retrieved from Mayo Clinic:

G. C. C., L., Yahaya, H., & T. O., L. (2003). The First Report of The National Cancer Registry Cancer Incidence in Malaysia 2002. Kuala Lumpur:
National Cancer Registry. Retrieved from

Make An Appointment With Us Now!

Get the right treatment for the right diagnosis at the right time. Time to beat cancer!
Begin your cancer journey with us here at Mahkota Cancer Centre.

Make An Appointment